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Additional Distribution Points can be deployed on remote sites. They can provide content locally to clients and reduce the need for excessive traffic to be transferred over the WAN links.
A good "rule of thumb" is to install a DP in locations of 20 users or more.
Supported Operating Systems
The matrix of supported operating systems can be found on the TechNet Library here
You can use a client (Windows Vista & later) or a server (Windows 2003 SP2 or later) OS - however the client OS will not support PXE or mulitcast.
There are also some other caveats that you should be aware of.
Add Primary Site Server computer account to be local administrator on the remote server.
Disable the Windows Firewall on the remote server (or configure the firewall - see here for ConfigMgr and firewall ports reference).
Add NO_SMS_ON_DRIVE.SMS file to all drives that you do not want ConfigMgr to use as a DP.
Add the required Windows Features - specifically IIS and Remote Differential Compression. Note that BITS is not required on the DP (BITS is installed on the ConfigMgr clients).
Add the DP
Navigate to Administration > Site Configuration.
Right click "Servers and Site System Roles" and choose "Create Site System Server"
Verify the server name and select the site code. Click Next.
No proxy required in my case.
Select "Distribution Point".
We have already installed IIS on the remote server - however it doesn't hurt to select the IIS box. We want HTTP.
Accept the defaults. Remember we have already configured NO_SMS_ON_DIVE.SMS
This will not be a Pull DP.
You can enable PXE now or later (this will install Windows Deployment Services). I like to do this later so that I can see WDS installing and I'm able to control the reboot).
Multicast not required.
Boundary Groups can be added now or later.
Click Next to deploy the DP.
Click Close to finish.
Monitor progress using the distmgr.log file.
See DP Content Library created.
DP successfully added