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I encountered this error today and the solution was easy. Yesterday a user had previously tried to connect to the corporate Exchange server using their new personal Android device. They were unable to do so due the Microsoft Intune On-Premise Exchange policy that was in place. Perfect behaviour. However I enrolled the device using the Intune Company Portal but was still unable to connect to the user's mail.
Intune knew that the device was now enrolled (I could see it in the console). Exchange did not. That would suggest a communication problem between Intune and Exchange.
On investigation I noticed a lot of Microsoft Intune Exchange Connector errors in the event log.
Event ID: 7007
The server was unable to process the request due to an internal error. For more information about the error, either turn on IncludeExceptionDetailInFaults (either from ServiceBehaviorAttribute or from the <serviceDebug> configuration behavior) on the server in order to send the exception information back to the client, or turn on tracing as per the Microsoft .NET Framework SDK documentation and inspect the server trace logs.
I tried to update the connector......
.....but received the same error (with an error code of 0x000000b)
The fix was easy. I simply restarted the MIcrosoft Intune Exchange Connector Service.
I could then update the connector.
Normal service was resumed and there was communication between Intune and Exchange again. The user could then access their corporate email on their new device.